Things you should know about Makaton
Talking does not just involve speaking. Watch someone talking, they will not just be saying words but they will also be using hand movements or gestures, facial expression, eye contact and body language (posture and movement). All this is communication.
Makaton uses speech and gesture, facial expression, eye contact and body language. It is a language programme which is based on a selected list of everyday words, such as Daddy , Door , Fall and In .
Makaton uses speech together with a sign (gesture) and/ or a symbol (picture), for example:
Why use Makaton
Signs and symbols give extra information which can be seen. Research has shown that signs/ gestures are easier to learn than spoken words. This makes sense. Babies use gestures before they can speak, to tell us what they want, for example pointing at the biscuit tin/ cookie jar or holding out arms to be lifted up. Makaton can help if a child has difficulties with understanding and speaking. Through Makaton, the child is able to develop important communication skills. （makaton可以帮助沟通能力不好的孩子在表达和理解方面上有所提升，孩子因此可以理解到沟通的重要性）
If a child has to rely on speech development alone, these vital skills may not develop properly: eye contact, turn taking, making choices, understanding, and sharing information. （如果孩子纯粹依赖语言上的发展，就或许会忽略了一些很重要的技巧，例如：眼神接触，轮流，选择，理解和分享）
Children who have difficulty understanding and speaking often become frustrated or withdrawn. They may communicate this through behaviours such as screaming and kicking which are unpleasant for the child and for us. By using Makaton, we are helping the child to communicate in a more acceptable way. （理解和表达能力不佳的孩子经常会觉得暴躁和被忽略，因此而通过喊叫和踢人来表达和发泄，这些举止对大人和孩子都不好。通过Makaton孩子就可以用比较恰当的方式来跟别人沟通了）
Will Makaton stop my child from speaking?
Experience and research indicate that using gestures/ signs promotes and stimulates speech development. It is very important that you use speech together with signs and symbols.（研究显示利用身体语言可以刺激语言发展，然而，有一点很重要的就是说话的时候比需要和“手语”同时进行）
Who needs to use Makaton?
Children learn to speak by listening to other people speaking. If your child is going to use signs/ symbols to help them communicate, your child will need to see you and other people using them as well. Everyone needs to be involved and will usually be happy to help.
What will other people think?
You may feel strange using Makaton at first and you may think that people are looking at you, but with practice it soon becomes more natural and you know it is helping your child.
Important things to remember when using Makaton :
- Using Makaton is fun.
- Makaton should be used in every aspect of the child's day.
- Always remember to speak as you sign or use symbols and encourage any attempt at speech.
- At first it may be necessary to help move your child's arms and hands to make the signs or point to the symbols.
- Don't give up! It may take a while for you and your child to learn to use signs and symbols.
The Makaton programme can be used with autistic children and adults and is recognised as a useful method of developing communication. It can also be successfully integrated into the TEACCH and PECS programmes. Quite often children prefer to use the symbols first and later develop signs, but there is a considerable amount of evidence that many children on the autistic spectrum can also learn signs and use those effectively, so there is quite a variation amongst this population.
Can Makaton be used with children with severe and profound difficulties?
Yes, but it is very hard work. You should start as young as possible and you will need to sign for a long time before the child will begin to sign back, also their signs may not be very clear in the beginning.
Is Makaton only useful to peopls with learning difficulties?
Makaton is used by people with all sorts of communication difficulties - not just those with learning difficulties but also many with an "acquired" communication difficulty arising from a stroke or a tracheotomy, for example.
p/s: 若有翻译错的话，请多多包涵 :P
原来都是这些makaton sign ^^"